Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by total area. Its southern and western border with the United States, stretching 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national land border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
Canada is an officially bilingual country, with two official languages: French and English. The 2019 Canadian Census enumerated a total population of 37,742,154. Canada’s constitution is based on the Westminster parliamentary model, wherein the role of the Queen is both legal and practical, but not political.